Создано 24.04.2013 10:13

Первый скрининг при беременности

В период первого триместра беременности, на сроке от 11 до 14 недель, проводят комплексное обследование - скрининг. Он представляет собой проведение УЗИ и анализ крови. Цель скрининга - определить на ранней стадии беременности врожденные нарушения в развитии плода. С его помощью выявляются такие серьезные заболевания как всем известный синдром Дауна, болезнь Эдвардса, нарушения в развитии нервной трубки.


Первый скрининг при беременности


С помощью анализа крови устанавливается содержание в крови гормона ХГЧ. Это один из важнейших гормонов в организме беременной женщины. Его недостаток свидетельствует о патологии плаценты, а повышенное количество - о хромосомных нарушениях эмбриона, либо о многоплодной беременности.


Кроме того, анализ крови помогает определить количество плазменного белка в крови. Снижение его уровня говорит о возможных пороках развития плода, в том числе болезни Дауна.


Ультразвуковое исследование проводится с целью определения работы сердца и кровотока плода, а также проверки его телосложения, правильного расположения конечностей, соответствие длины тела сроку беременности. Измеряют воротниковое пространство у плода, точнее, его ширину. Это имеет большое значение, поскольку отклонение его от нормы свидетельствует о возможных генетических нарушениях. Конечно, проводить УЗИ лучше у хорошего специалиста и на современном оборудовании, так результаты будут точнее и надежнее.


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Это обследование не зря называется «двойным тестом», поскольку только в случае проведения этих исследований в совокупности можно сделать правильный вывод. Один анализ крови или только УЗИ не даст полной информации. Если в результате скрининга выявлен высокий риск патологии эмбриона, проводится дополнительная диагностика: исследуются околоплодные воды и клетки плаценты.


В обязательном порядке скрининг проводят женщинам, у которых повышен риск развития нарушений плода. Это следующие категории беременных: в возрасте более 35 лет; те, у которых ранее были самопроизвольные прерывания беременности, рождались дети с генетическими патологиями, либо мертворожденные дети; у кого есть родственники с генетическими нарушениями; кто переболел вирусными заболеваниями или принимал опасные лекарства в начале беременности . Хотя в последнее время все чаще эту процедуру рекомендуют проходить всем беременным без исключения.




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