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Создано 30.07.2013 04:43

Как ухаживать за яблоней

Яблони растут почти на каждом приусадебном участке. И неудивительно, его плоды – яблоки, первыми появляются в наших садах, в которых мы уверены, что они экологически чистые. Хотя в магазинах и продаются сорта яблок круглый год. Нормальное яблоко хранится до 1,5 месяца после его сбора, а ранние сорта, такие как Белый налив и того меньше.

 

Что мы покупаем в зимнее время неизвестно. Яблоко в вашем саду самое натуральное. Ученые, кстати, пришли к выводу, что яблоки, сохраняют свои витамины, только в указанные сроки хранения, а затем, в качестве еды, мы получаем только клетчатку, что так же несет свою пользу, но уже в меньшей степени, чем свежесорванный плод.

 

Как ухаживать за яблоней

 

Когда и как садить?

Высаживают яблони осенью или ранней весной. Осенью предпочтительна покупка саженцев в питомниках, так как цена на них намного дешевле. Весной только при сходе снега начинается посадка, это период конца апреля, возможна раньше или позже, в зависимости от региона. Расстояние между саженцами в среднем составляет 4 метра.

 

Хотя сейчас появились сорта, предназначенные для маленьких садов, такие как Балерина, то расстояние между таким видом яблонь, составляет всего лишь 60 см. Этот сорт активно используют в качестве живой изгороди. Такой сорт даже можно выращивать в кадках, украшая ими террасы и балконы. Но Балерину надо сажать, как минимум, двух видов, для самооплодотворения.

 

Ямы копают с учетом размеров корневой системы саженца. Она должна быть больше чем ширина корней вашей яблоньки. Почва для посадки водопроницаемая, хорошо деревце чувствует себя на суглинистой почве с ежегодной подкормкой. Если вы растите яблоню в кадках, то необходимо в почву добавить глину, так как она хорошо удерживает влагу, и подкормку делать ежемесячно.

 

Как ухаживать за яблоней

 

Место посадки и в том, и в другом случае мульчируют. Для этого используют компост или солому.

Яркий солнечный день для активного плодоношения яблони составляет 6 часов. В конце июня советуем прореживать завязавшиеся плоды, выбирая наиболее слабые, чтобы они не забирали питательные вещества. Оставшиеся плоды нальются и будут крупнее.

 

Из вредителей яблонь наиболее известен мучнисто-росяной гриб. На плодах и листьях появляются белые пятна, в форме налета. Осенью пораженные ветки надо обрезать. При сильном заражении всего дерева, рекомендуем опыление деревца раствором, содержащим серу.

 

Еще одним из заболеваний яблонь является серая гниль. Здесь налет имеет серо-белый окрас. Причиной заболевания могут стать: тяжелая почва или дождливая погода. Пораженные плоды следует уничтожить, а почву улучшить, добавив разрыхлители и компост.

 

Выращивайте яблони, получайте яблоки – свои, а не купленные в магазине, ведь это такой замечательный плод.

 

 

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Конечно очень важно правильно посадить яблоню. Но иногда бывает так, что яблоня, которая каждый год (или через год) всегда давала хороший урожай, вдруг не дает плодов. У нас в этом году так случилось. При этом весной она очень хорошо цвела, а плодов нет. Говорят, что есть какой-то вредитель, который поедает цветы.
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